Monday, August 24, 2020

Quality management Essay

Exchange 2: Identify two (2) thought pioneers comparative with quality administration. Research each to decide their center thoughts and commitments. Blend your contemplations about each into a one section (per pioneer) that contains significant and important proclamations about each idea head, their commitments, and the pertinence of the commitment today in regards to crafted by venture administrators. Joseph M. Juran Dr. Juran gave 70 years to his books, musings, and all consuming purpose changing the way of thinking of complete quality administration. His created quality administration thoughts work around the quality set of three of Quality Planning, Quality Improvement, and Quality Control. Through the Juran Institute, Dr. Juran has kept up the ability to persistently widen the experiential learning of financial analyst, researcher, and designers around his work. Dr. Juran’s lessons and direction center endeavors around the client and their needs, upgrades the item for those people, enhances the procedures in question, and guarantees that the procedure will really deliver the item. Dr. Juran comprehended that the human part (the client, the administrator, the researcher, the architect) was a necessary bit of the quality procedure. His exercises added to the ascent of the Japanese economy after his hands on functions with the Union of Japanese Scientist and Engineers. The push of data to day has permitted these hypotheses to prosper. Consumer loyalty is a consistently squeezing position for huge and private ventures. Today’s supervisors would be unable to comprehend the human factor, if people like Dr. Juran didn't lay the foundation to concentrate endeavors on the human variables. Genichi Taguchi Taguchi was a Japanese Textile Engineer that comprehended the procedures and impacts of little and huge organizations. He understood there were factors inside management’s control and others that we not. His significant commitments/speculations were the accompanying: The Loss Function-a condition to measure the decay of a customer’s saw estimation of an item, as the quality decreases; Orthogonal Arrays and Linear Graphs-instruments to recognize and confine the things concerned when managing powerful expenses and time; Robustness-the distinguished course of creating items and procedures that perform consistently paying little heed to the wild powers.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Fibromyalgia (FM) Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

Fibromyalgia (FM) Symptoms, Causes and Treatments B. Trimble Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia (FM) is a state of obscure etiology, portrayed by broad torment, atypical torment handling, rest interruption, weakness, and regularly mental misery. Individuals with fibromyalgia may likewise have included signs, for example, morning inflexibility, shivering or deadness of the hands and feet, cerebral pains, headaches, crabby inside condition, rest issue, psychological issues, issues with deduction and memory (frequently called fibro-haze), and extra agony disorder (CDC, 2010). The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 measures is utilized for clinical determination and seriousness characterization of fibromyalgia (CDC, 2010). The conclusion is fixated on: Broad torment file (WPI) of more noteworthy than or equivalent to seven and manifestation seriousness scale (SS) of more prominent than or equivalent to five, or WPI of three to six and SS of more prominent than nine (CDC, 2010). Side effects have been existent at a comparative level for at any rate three months (CDC, 2010) The patient doesn't have another confusion that would somehow clarify the torment (CDC, 2010). Fibromyalgia frequently happens with other rheumatic conditions, for example, rheumatoid joint inflammation, up to 25 †65%, fundamental lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis (CDC, 2010). The delicate point test is supplanted with far reaching torment record and a framework seriousness scale. The across the board torment record score is controlled by tallying the quantity of territories on the body where the patient has had torment in the previous week. The agenda incorporates nineteen regions of the body (Rush University Medical Center, 2010). The side effects seriousness score is dictated by rating on a size of zero to three, three being the most common, the seriousness of three aggregate indications: weariness, waking worn out and subjective manifestations (Rush University Medical Center, 2010). An extra three focuses can be added to represent extra side effects, for example, deadness, wooziness, queasiness, sorrow, or bad tempered gut condition. The last score is somewhere in the range of zero and twelve (Rush University Medical Center, 2010). To meet the standards for a conclusion of fibromyalgia, a patient would have at least seven agony territories and a side effects seriousness score of at least five, or three to six torment regions and an indications seriousness score of at least nine (Rush University Medical Center, 2010). A few standards stay immaculate. The manifestations more likely than not been existent for at least three months, and the patient doesn't have another confusion that would clarify the agony (Rush University Medical Center, 2010). To create and test the new standards, scientists actualized a multi-focus investigation of in the past analyzed fibromyalgia patients and a gathering of patients with rheumatic non-fiery clutters utilizing a doctor physical and talk with assessment (Rush University Medical Center, 2010). The inescapability of fibromyalgia influences an expected 5,000,000 grown-ups, with a larger number of ladies than men influenced (CDC, 2010). A great many people with fibromyalgia are analyzed during middle age, and the rate increments with age. In spite of the fact that the rates are higher in ladies, men and kids can have the turmoil. Ladies with the turmoil that are hospitalized are multiple times bound to come back to work, however multiple times more outlandish hold work at one year after hospitalization. It is demonstrated that grown-ups with fibromyalgia normal around seventeen days of missed work every year contrasted with six days for those without the turmoil (CDC, 2010). The causes or potentially hazard factors for fibromyalgia are related with distressing or horrible mishaps, for example, fender benders, post-awful pressure issue, dull wounds, ailments, (for example, viral contaminations), certain ailments (, for example, Rheumatoid joint inflammation), incessant weakness disorder, lupus, hereditary inclinations, and heftiness (CDC, 2010). Individuals with fibromyalgia react firmly to things that others would not discover awkward by displaying an irregular torment recognition. The ACR suggests a multi-disciplinary treatment plan including screening and treatment for sorrow, as proof demonstrates that downturn is a significant event with fibromyalgia (CDC, 2010). The suggestion for treatment incorporates pharmacotherapy, oxygen consuming activity and muscle reinforcing and, instruction and unwinding treatment (CDC, 2010). Numerous hormonal, metabolic, and cerebrum concoction deviations have been shown in investigations of fibromyalgia (CDC, 2010).Variations appear to happen in some mind synthetic compounds, albeit no ordinary example was distinguished as pertinent in many patients with the turmoil. Fibromyalgia might be the consequence of the properties of torment and weight on the focal sensory system that prompts changes in the mind, as opposed to a cerebrum issue itself (CDC, 2010). Specialists are worried about serotonin and the consequences for fibromyalgia. Serotonin encourages sentiments of prosperity, alters torment levels and advances profound rest (CDC, 2010). Low degrees of serotonin have been noted in patients with fibromyalgia. Research has likewise discovered variations from the norm in the nerve center pituitary-adrenal organ hub (HPA hub). The HPA hub directs rest, stress reaction, and sadness. Changes in the HPA pivot may prompt lower levels of pressure hormones norepinephrine and cortisol. Lower levels of pressure hormones lead to lessened reactions to mental or physical pressure (CDC, 2010). As indicated by the ACR, individuals with fibromyalgia can have unpredictable degrees of substance P in their spinal liquid ( This substance P passes on and escalate torment signs to and from the mind. Analysts are thinking about the capacity of substance P and different synapses, and contemplating why individuals with fibromyalgia have enhanced affectability to torment and whether there is a quality or qualities that cause an individual to be progressively inclined to have it ( Numerous means have been taken in inquire about in providing patients with chances to comprehend and address the side effects of fibromyalgia and personal satisfaction issues. Research ceaselessly shows that a multi-disciplinary methodology is the most supportive for the doctor and the patient (National Fibromyalgia Research Association). The assessment the doctor finishes while considering a conclusion of fibromyalgia ought to incorporate an essential neurologic assessment, a referral to a nervous system specialist, and MRI if the test shows insignificant shortfalls (National Fibromyalgia Research Association). Exercise is significant for fibromyalgia patients. It has an impact on the nature of rest and assists with keeping unaffected muscles solid. High-impact exercise, reinforcing and unwinding help with diminishing the impacts of the confusion (National Fibromyalgia Research Association). There is nobody drug that works for all patients (National Fibromyalgia Research Association). Clinical experts and patients must cooperate to figure out which prescription or mix of drugs are best for the individual (National Fibromyalgia Research Association). Individuals with fibromyalgia are ordinarily treated with torment meds, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, and tranquilizers ( In June 2007, Lyrica (Pregabalin) turned into the primary FDA endorsed medicate for the particular treatment of fibromyalgia; after one year, June 2008, Cymbalta (duloxetine hydrochloride) turned into the second, and in January 2009, Savella (milnacipran HCL) turned into the third ( Lyrica, Cymbalta, and Savella lessen torment and improve work in certain individuals with fibromyalgia ( While individuals with fibromyalgia experience the ill effects of others, the instrument by which these medications yield their outcome is obscure. There is data suggesting that these medications impact the arrival of synapses in the mind ( Lyrica was recently endorsed to treat seizures, just as torment related with harmed nerves in diabetic fringe neuropathy and the individuals who create torment from the shingles rash ( Symptoms of Lyrica incorporate sluggishness, unsteadiness, obscured vision, weight gain, expanding of the hands and feet, dry mouth, and trouble concentrating ( Cymbalta was recently affirmed to treat sadness, uneasiness, and diabetic fringe neuropathy ( Cymbalta symptoms incorporate sickness, dry mouth, sleepiness, blockage, diminished hunger, and expanded perspiring. Cymbalta may increment self-destructive reasoning and the danger of self-destructive activities. It might likewise build sadness in certain individuals ( Savella is the primary medication presented basically for the treatment of fibromyalgia ( It isn't utilized to treat discouragement in the United States, yet acts like antidepressants that are utilized to treat gloom and other mental issue ( Lyrica and Cymbalta are endorsed for the utilization in grown-ups eighteen years and more established. The medication organizations have consented to consider their medications in youngsters and breastfeeding ladies ( Different meds used to treat fibromyalgia are pramipexole, tramadol, pindolol, ketamine, sodium oxybate, and gabapentin (National Fibromyalgia Research Association). Numerous patients accomplish help with discomfort from correlative and elective meds (CAM). Needle therapy, biofeedback, and back rub are well known treatment options. Home grown enhancements and medicine may likewise give ceaseless help with discomfort and soothe exhaustion ( A significant part of the exploration on correlative wellbeing approaches for fibromyalgia is as yet fundamental, and proof of adequacy is restricted. A few investigations have indicated that practices, for example, TaiChi, gi-gong, and back rub treatment may help with fibromyalgia manifestations. (Kowlowitz E.J.) Aerobic and quality preparing practices have been related with significant upgrades in torment levels, delicate point checks, and rest aggravations. Support of activity programs demonstrates that consistence is an issue with patients. Conversation on methodologies on improving consistence can be talked about with the patients (Mille

Sunday, July 19, 2020

ADHD and Anger Management for Children

ADHD and Anger Management for Children July 01, 2019 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Brand New Images/Getty Images It is not uncommon for children with ADHD to react in anger. It can be very difficult for these kids to manage and regulate their emotions. They may also be hypersensitive. Stressful or frustrating situations can quickly boil over into intense anger. Children with ADHD also have a tough time being able to stop and think through problems before reacting. As a parent, it can be hard to see your child losing control. While we can’t make the anger disappear, we can help our children better manage these intense reactions. Understand Triggers Be aware of what triggers your child’s angry meltdowns. Are there particular times of day that anger appears to peak? Are there any patterns? You may notice that after school time is most difficult as your child is able to let down his guard and release pent up feelings. It may be when he is feeling hungry or tired. There may be triggers that set him off like when he is experiencing frustration with a task. Also, times the medication is wearing off may be most difficult. Intervene Early As you become more aware of the triggers, you can begin to intervene before the anger comes to a full blown head. Be a calming presence. If your child responds well to physical contact, rub his back or arm. Encourage him to take a deep breath and count to 10. Do this along with him to help demonstrate this calming technique. Use Time Out Time out doesn’t have to be punitive. In fact, it shouldn’t be. Time out is a great way for your child to remove himself from the negative situation to take some time to cool down. Approach time out in this way. Pick a time when your child is happy and settled and talk with him about how to use time out. Give him a sense of control by having him chose a designated time out chair away from the hustle and bustle of the household. Now he will understand how to use it when he needs it. Once he does need a time out, you will have to provide guidance by walking with him to the designated time out chair. As he sits down in the chair (or stands by the chair if the movement is helpful), practice the deep breathing exercises with him. Don’t try to talk with him about the situation until he is calm and settled. Give him a lot of praise for being able to use time out to cool down, and then spend some time talking with him about what happened. If his anger led him to react by destroying his crayons and breaking them in two, ask him what he could have done differently to express his feelings in a way that is less harmful, more productive. Be aware of your voice tone and model calmness. Give him praise for coming up with positive alternative solutions. Label Feelings As you notice your child is beginning to feel frustrated, reflect upon his feelings. “That puzzle is really hard to put together! I see it is making you feel a little frustrated.” As you do this you will help your child become more aware of his own feelings. As awareness increases, you can help your child label his own feelings. If you got an update from the teacher that your child had a rough time with peers that day, spend time talking with him about how it felt. Help him to express his feelings to you by using words. Offer Choices Offering choices to your child gives him a sense of control. If you know that your child has difficulty with transitions such as clean up time, help him ease through this time by offering a choice. “Do you want to clean up the blocks first or the race cars?” Just be sure to limit the number of choices to two or three. Too many choices can make a child feel overwhelmed or over-stimulated. Make Sure Your Child Is Getting Plenty of Sleep Children with ADD/ADHD often have difficulties with sleep. When kids don’t get enough sleep they are more irritable and moody, have more trouble tolerating stress, are more easily frustrated, and overall symptoms of ADD/ADHD will be worse during the day. Model Good Anger Management Yourself It is very hard for children with ADD/ADHD to regulate their own emotions, but the more and more you can do to help your child understand his feelings and be more aware of alternative, more positive ways to react the better. One way to do this is through example. Teach by example, by not only responding in an appropriate manner but also by talking through the process so your child will better understand. Read Books Together Go to the library and pick out books that address feelings, especially related to anger, frustration, rejection, isolation, sadness, or any other difficult emotion your child frequently experiences. Ask the librarian for recommendations. Read these stories together with your child and discuss the feelings. Discuss the ways the character handles their feelings. How do the characters react? Could they have reacted differently? How might you react when faced with the same situation? Problem solve situations together and discuss positive steps characters can take. Spend Special Time Together Make sure you set aside regular times each day to spend  one on one time with your child. Make this time together with positive, loving and nurturing. So often kids with ADD/ADHD experience negative, negative, negative. They need to know that they are valued and loved. You as the parent can make a world of difference in your child’s positive sense of self. Special time with you is incredibly valuable.?

Thursday, May 21, 2020

A Political, Cultural, and Religious Description of the...

A Political, Cultural, and Religious Description of the Current Atmosphere as Exists in Israel Israel, in the 1990s, is in a continual state of political, cultural and religious flux. Religion continues to play a central factor in the difficulties which the state has been and continues to experience. This unique country is characterized by an amalgam of cultural and ethnic diversity. This historical and cultural fact ensures that the difficulties the state has been experiencing in realizing self-adjustment will continue. At the same time, there exist mostly positive and persistent facets of the culture which continue unabated as will be discussed.†¦show more content†¦Recently, hundreds of thousands of Jews from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries, as well as most members of the ancient Jewish community of Ethiopia, have arrived to make their homes in Israel. Th roughout the years, groups, families and individuals have chosen to come from all parts of the free world, in greater or lesser numbers, to take part in building the country. With a population which has increased more than seven-fold since 1948, and with people still coming from all over the world bringing varied languages, traditions, educational standards, and social outlooks, Israel continues to seek ways to meet the challenge of developing a modern, democratic society. In a certain sense, Israel is not unlike the United States of America, in that it is a land which is comprised of many people from varied backgrounds. It is both urban and rural where some 89.9% of the land is made up of cities and the remaining rural area is comprised of villages, Kibbutzim, and Moshavim. Moshav or Kibbutz comprises about 10% of the population in rural areas and agricultural settlements. The Kibbutz is a social and economic unit (property and means of conduction are communally owned) in which dec isions are made by the General Assembly of its members. Meals, prepared in a central kitchen, are served in a communal dining hall. Clothing and linens are washed, mended and distributed by a central laundry; and children grow up together in organizedShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis of Terrorism Essay9824 Words   |  40 PagesTerrorism is also viewed as a political act against a government and it’s citizenry, secondly, it is viewed as a coercive means to change some policy through the application of violence upon society . Finally terrorism adheres to the unlawfullness of acts as a mode of political change. For the purpose of this study terrorism is defined as a strategy whereby violence is used to produce certain effects in a group of people so an to attain some political end or ends. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Euthanasi Assisted Suicide - 1252 Words

Giovanni Gomez Tammy Jonhson English 2 B 14 November 2014 Euthanasia: Assisted suicide Which is better - suffering, pain, and holding onto life for a period of time or just being laid to rest in peace? Nine out of ten people would pick the latter (Georgia State University) if just asked that question without a scenario, but when given the scenario and thinking about their family they might change their opinion. Euthanasia is related to this because it is the destruction of life, and in today’s society, medications can help with pain and suicide is typical due to the amount suffering for depression. Therefore, there is no reason why euthanasia should be illegal at this point. â€Å"No human being with a spark of pity could let a living thing†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, there is no reason why euthanasia should not a viable option to people that want it. Also, euthanasia is a way out of a life of pain and misery, to take in fact â€Å"Un-responsive individuals† or â€Å"Brain dead individuals†. What kind of quality of life is that, be confined to a wheel chair and having to idea in the world what is going on. I think it should be an option to love ones and the person themselves if they what to turn to euthanasia as an option of relief. Euthanasia, like many things, can be for the better of man or its worst enemy. Euthanasia is pain relief, from a life confined to a mobile chair with no sense what so ever. Ask yourself what kind of life is that, would you want to be in this role for the rest of your life? In light of this, these kind of living arrangements can put great strain on a family and love ones. With the legalization of euthanasia, this can act of a relief to some families and the patient. In the normal course of an illness, loved ones, friends, and family are all going to be involved in the dying process. Having to watch a loved one s symptoms get worse, sometimes over a long period of time, and can be very harrowing. If assisted suicide

Teacher Free Essays

This means that anyone who is aware of any type of bullying that is taking place is expected to ell a member of staff immediately. Vision Mission Aims of the Policy This policy aims to provide each and every member of the school including other stakeholders a clear and transparent framework for ensuring pupil’s protection against physical and verbal abuse inside or even outside the school’s vicinity. Scope of the Policy This Child protection policy covers all people serving and working in P. We will write a custom essay sample on Teacher or any similar topic only for you Order Now Saris Memorial Elementary School. 1. School Personnel – define as the teaching force of P. Saris Memorial Elementary School. They are classified as: School Head -? it refers to the school principal administering P. Saris Memorial Elementary School. Teachers – these are the teaching personnel/advisers of each Grade level in P. Saris Memorial Elementary School. Other Personnel – it includes all the non – teaching personnel in the school for any nature of appointment they have. 2. Children in the School – refers to the registered/ enrolled pupils in the academic year whether regular, transferee, repeater or even out-of school youth who are in the school or enrolled in learning centers in the school. . School Guests and Visitors – these include persons who visit he school for official business and those persons that do not have any official business but is found in the school premises. This may include school catechist, parents, canteen personnel and guardians of the pupils. PRINCIPLES â€Å"Bullying behavior abuses an imbalance of power to repeatedly and intentionally cause emotional or physical harm to another person or group of people. Isolated instances of hurtful behavior , teasing or arguments but individuals would not be seen as bullying† ( Torture definition 2008 ) Based on House Bill 5496 (Anti-Bullying Act of 201 2), bullying is any severe r repeated use of written, verbal or electronic expression, or a physical act or gesture, or any combination by one or more pupil directed at another pupil that has the effect of actually causing or placing the latter in a reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to property, creating a hostile environment at school and infringing on the rights of other pupils at school. Bullying generally takes one of four forms: Indirect – being unfriendly spreading rumors excluding tormenting (e. G. Hiding bags or books) Physical – pushing, kicking, hitting, punching, slapping, or any form of lenience Verbal – name-calling teasing, threats, sarcasm Cyber – all areas of internet misuse, such as nasty and/or threatening emails, misuse of blobs, gaming websites, internet, chat rooms and instant messaging. Mobile threats by text messaging calls. Misuse of associated technology, I. E. Camera and videos facilities Although not an exhaustive list, common examples of bullying include: -Racial bullying -Homophobic bullying -Bullying based on disability, ability, gender, appearance or circumstance I. Preventive Strategies We will use some or all of the following to help raise awareness of and revert bullying. As and, when appropriate these may include: writing and implementing a set of school rules signing a behavior contract using art, drama , music, to reinforce awareness reading stories about bullying or having them read to a class or assembly having regular discussions about bullying and why it matters setting up and sustaining a Student Us port Scheme Ill. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR PERSONNEL Appropriate Standard of Behavior . Ensure equality in every pupils. 2. Be a role model. 3. Cater each pupil’s problem. Establish a child-friendly classroom 4. 5. Respect pupil’s views and ideas. . Observe proper clothing inside the school 7. Act as the second parent of every pupils. Parents, Visitors Guidelines In order to fully follow what is set to this policy and build harmonious relationship, parents and visitors are expected to be aware of what is written in the Parent, Visitors Guidelines set in the policy. They are expected to: 1. Recognize every school rules. 2. Be aware that child’s development is a partnership of the school and the parents. . Refrain their children in bringing inappropriate things (cellophanes and any other related gadgets) 4. Let their children be aware of the consequences of their acts inside and outside the school premises. 5. Help their children in dealing peer/classmates problem. 6. Informed school staff of some arrangement In home that may affect the child’s performance. 7. Be a role model to every pupils. Public Conduct on School Property The sch ool is a home for development of learning. Some limitations are observed during school hours. All the persons attending the school with any business should poster respect and well manner. It is the school personnel is the full responsible to these people. The following rules should be abided by each and every visitor: 1 . Any person that is not a regular staff of the school is define as visitors. 2. Visitors should show respect and well-behaved manner. 3. All visitors should see the school head/principal of the school first. 4. Parent who want to have a classroom observation should approach the class adviser for scheduling. 5. Any unauthorized person without any business in the school should be reported to the school head/principal of the school and may be asked to leave at once. 6. All visitors should abide with the school rules at al times. No person shall: 1. Hurt someone physically by kicking, hitting or any physical contact that may lead to hurting others. 2. Steal or damage other person’s things 3. Tease someone in a hurtful way 4. Spread rumors or untruths about someone. 5. Use put-downs by insulting someone’s race, making fun of someone for being a boy or girl, etc. 6. Eave someone out on purpose or try to get other students not to play with him/her 7. Touch or show private body parts and other forms of sexual harassment. 8. Make fun things with a person that may lead to depression. 9. Insult others by saying bad words (personal or thru internet) 10. Do any dirty signs to anyone. Lb. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR PUPILS Appropriate behavior pupils should: 1 . Show respect with each other at all times 2. Exhibits good manners and right conduct 3. Shows sportsmanship at all times 4. Develop a harmonious relationship with peers and teachers. 5. Be well- behaved inside and outside the classroom 6. Well-dressed with proper uniform and haircut. 7. Observed rules and regulations Of the school Inappropriate behavior Pupils should not: 1. Bring cellophanes and other related gadgets. 2. Hurt anyone verbally, physical or emotionally 3. Bring any pointed metal other materials that may hurt someone. Capacity Building IV. Case Management The school’s procedures for investigation, follow-up and recording of bullying behavior and the established intervention strategies used by the school for dealing with cases of bullying behavior are as detailed below. The primary aim in investigating and dealing with bullying is to resolve any issues and to restore, as far as is practicable, the relationships of the parties involved (rather than to apportion blame). Every effort will be made to ensure that all involved (including pupils, parent(s)/guardian(s)) understand this approach from the outset V. Monitoring and adjusting the CAP The school will review this policy annually and assess its implementation and effectiveness. The policy will be promoted and implemented throughout the school. VI. Sanctions for Violations Schools The following steps may be taken when dealing with incidents: ; If bullying is suspected or reported, the incident will be dealt with immediately by the member of staff who has been approached ; A clear and precise account of the incident will be recorded and given to the head teacher The head teacher will interview all concerned and will record the incident ; Parents will be kept informed ; Punitive measures will be used as appropriate and in consultation with all parties concerned ; If necessary and appropriate, brandy/ police will be consulted. How to cite Teacher, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Engagement free essay sample

Review of literature The literature on employee engagement builds on earlier research and discussion on issues of commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), but means more than what these terms encapsulate. The defining distinction is that employee engagement is a two-way interaction between the employee and the employer, whereas the earlier focus tended to view the issues from only the employee’s point of view. Definitions of engagement ,or characteristics of an engaged workforce, focus on motivation, satisfaction ,commitment , finding meaning at work, pride and advocacy of the organization (in terms of advocating/recommending either the products or services of the organization, or as a place to work ). additionally , having some connection to the organization’s overall strategy and objectives and both wanting and being able to work to achieve them, are key elements of engagement. A recurring theme in the literature is the idea that engagement involves workers ‘going the extra mile’ , and exerting discretionary effort over what is normally expected. We will write a custom essay sample on Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Engagement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page An organization’s productivity is measured not in terms of employee satisfaction but in terms of employee engagement . employees are said to be engaged when they show a positive attitude towards the engagement and express a commitment to remain with the organization. It is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards the organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of the business context and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. Employee engagement 1. csikszentmihalyi (1975) studied the effect of engagement in organizational behavior is the notion of flow. He defines ‘flow’ as the holistic sensation that people feel when they act with total involvement. Flow ii the state in which there is little distinction between the self and environment . when individuals are in flow state little conscious control is necessary for their actions. Employee engagement is thus the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its value. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement which requires a two way relationship between employer and employee. Thus employee engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the organization. 2. khan (1990) studied the effect of Engagement at work where as the engagement people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively and emotionally during role performances. He described employee engagement in his psychological literature as different from other employee role constructs such as job involvement , commitment or intrinsic motivation, asserting that it focused on how psychological experiences of work shape the process of people presenting and absenting themselves during task performances. Khan argued that engagement was a multidimensional construct in that employees could be emotionally, cognitively or physically engaged. For psychological engagement and organizational behaviors, the two major dimensions were emotional and cognitive engagement . mployees could be engaged on one dimension and not the other. The more engaged an employee was on each dimension, the higher his/her overall personal engagement. Khan asserted that employees experienced dimensions of personal engagement or disengagement during daily tasks. Engagement occurred when one was cognitively vigilant and/or emotionally connected to others. Disengaged employees uncoupled them selves from roles and withdrew cognitively and emotionally. They displayed incomplete role performances and were effortless, automatic or robotic. 3. Gallup (1999) study consist on more than 30 years of in-depth behavioral economic research involving more than 17 million employees. This research has appeared in prestigious business and scientific publications, including the journal of Applied Psychology and Harvard Business Review; first, break all the rules and 12: The Elements of Great Managing. Through rigorous research, they have identified 12 core elements – the Q12 – that link powerfully to key business outcomes. These 12 statement emerged as those that best predict employee and workgroup performance. Gallup’s latest meta-analysis (an analysis of data from more than 152 organizations) shows dramatic differences between top- and bottom –quartile workgroups on key business outcomes. Beyond the significant differences engaged workgroups show in productivity, profitability, safety incidents , and absenteeism versus disengaged workgroups we have proven that engaged organizations have 3. 9 times the earnings per share (EPS) growth rate compared to organizations with lower engagement in their same industry. The Gallup great workplace Awards was create to recognize companies with an extraordinary ability to create a engaged workplace culture . organizations can apply each year for this award based on the criteria such as organization size , minimum response rate and minimum results. 4. Aaron Sorensen in Perspectives (2007) examined the prediction of engagement, describe a methodology for measured it and share an approach for using engagement data to make workforce investments that ultimately increased productivity and derived business results. It draws on information collected as part of Sibsons 2006 Rewards of WorkSM (ROW) Study of over 1,200 American workers1, and provides important insights into the drivers of engagement and how organizations might improve engagement levels in ways that bring a significant return on investment. 5. Medlin, W Green (2009) investigated the relationships among goal setting, employee engagement, workplace optimism, and individual performance constructs. Goal setting is hypothesized as positively impacting employee engagement, employee engagement as positively impacting workplace optimism, and workplace optimism as positively impacting individual performance. Design/methodology/approach Data collected from a sample of 426 full- and part-time employees are analyzed following a structural equation modeling methodology. Findings The measurement and structural models fit the data relatively well. Goal setting positively impacts employee engagement, employee engagement positively optimism . Youssef Luthans (2007) examined the effects of hope, optimism, and resilience had in the workplace on 40 employees’ job performance, job satisfaction, work happiness, and organizational commitment. Hope and resilience had a more direct affect on organizational commitment whereas hope had a greater impact on performance. Hope allows employees to be better at created more realistic plans for completed task so as not to focus on the failure that accompanies an incomplete task. Optimism strengthens the employee’s resilience to break through barriers and causes the employee to build social support and other strengths to overcome obstacle he or she may encounter. 2. Arakawa and Greenberg(2007) investigated whether teams are more engaged and productive when led by an optimistic manager. Furthermore, they hypothesised that optimistic managers embody positive leadership-employing a strengths-based approach, maintaining a positive perspective, and frequently providing recognition and encouragement-which increases the engagement and productivity of their employees. The study used a cross-sectional survey design at two time points. The researchers developed a survey to measure this concept of positive leadership. In addition, two measures were used: the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R) to measure optimism and the Gallup Organizations Q? to measure engagement. In a cross-sectional study of 86 employees and 17 managers in an Information Technology (IT) organization, positive leadership correlated with employee optimism, engagement, and project performance. When we looked at a subset of this data prospectively, with 39 employees and 14 managers, manager optimism predicted project performance. Our data support the claim that positive leadership is correlated with employee engagement and performance, and further extends the importance of optimism in the workplace. Coaching implications are also discussed, in terms of exploring how coaching psychologists can work with executives to develop their managerial style. 3. Medlin, Green (2009) investigated the relationships among goal setting, employee engagement, workplace optimism, and individual performance constructs. Goal setting is hypothesized as positively impacting employee engagement, employee engagement as positively impacting workplace optimism, and workplace optimism as positively impacting individual performance. Data collected from a sample of 426 full- and part-time employees are analyzed following a structural equation modeling methodology. The measurement and structural models fit the data relatively well. Goal setting positively impacts employee engagement, employee engagement positively impacts optimism, and optimism positively impacts individual performance, as hypothesized. Research limitations/implications Although data are collected from a relatively diverse group of respondents, the ability to generalize the findings is limited because the results are derived from a non-random sample. All measures are based on the perceptions of the respondents. Job performance is reported by each respondent may not reflect the supervisors performance rating and is not necessarily consistent with objective performance indicators such as sales generated by a marketing employee. Practical implications Results indicate that formal, structured goal setting processes lead to higher levels of employee engagement, that higher levels of engagement lead to improved workplace optimism, and that improved optimism in turn leads to higher levels of individual performance. Originality/value The paper provides empirical support for the implementation of management programs that foster goal setting, employee engagement, and workplace optimism for the purpose of enhancing the performance levels of individual employees. 4. Geers , Lassiter and Wellman (2009) this study is to investigated the circumstances under which a personality variable, namely dispositional optimism, is associated with successful goal engagement and attainment. Dispositional optimism refers to a generalized positive outcome expectancy (Scheier Carver, 1985). A great deal of research on dispositional optimism stems from the behavioral self-regulation model (Carver Scheier , 1981, 1998), which proposes that goal-directed action is guided by a series of negative feedback loops.